Glossary of terms
Crédit : nous avons largement utilisé le glossaire de Morgan Burke, que l'on peut trouver dans la FAQ du forum sur l'escrime. Les traductions sont de notre cru.
- Absence of blade : Absence de fer.
- when the blades are not touching; opposite of
- Advance : Marche.
- a movement forward by step, cross, or balestra.
- Aids : Aides.
- the last three fingers of the sword hand.
- Assault : Assaut, Combat.
- friendly combat between two fencers.
- Attack : Attaque.
- the initial offensive action made by extending the sword
continuously threatening the valid target of the opponent.
- Attack au Fer : Attaque au fer
- an attack that is prepared by deflecting the
blade, eg. beat, froissement, pressure.
- Balestra : Balestra
- a forward hop or jump, typically followed by an attack
such as a
lunge or fleche.
- Bayonet : Connecteur à baïonnette
- a type of electrical connector for weapons.
- Beat : Battement
- an attempt to knock the opponent's blade aside or out of line
one's foible or middle against the opponent's foible.
- Bind : Liement
- an action in which the opponent's blade is forced into the
- Black Card : Carton noir
- used to indicate the most serious offences in a fencing
competition. The offending fencer is usually expelled from the event or
- Bout : Match
- an assault at which the score is kept.
- Broadsword : Estramaçon
- a military sword and fencing weapon popular in the
centuries, similar to a heavy sabre; any straight-bladed, double- edged, single-
handed cutting sword of the post-medieval period.
- Broken Time : Changement de Rythme
- a sudden change in the tempo of one fencer's actions,
fool the opponent into responding at the wrong time.
- Button : Mouche; Bouton
- the safety tip on the end of practice swords.
- Change of Engagement : Changement d'engagement
- engagement of the opponent's blade in the
- Compound : Attaque composée ou parade composée
- also composed; an attack or riposte incorporating one
feints to the opposite line that the action finishes in.
- Conversation : Conversation
- the back-and-forth play of the blades in a fencing
composed of phrases (phrases d'armes) punctuated by gaps of no blade action.
- Corps-a-corps : Corps à corps
- lit. "body-to-body"; physical contact between the
fencers during a bout, illegal in foil and sabre.
- Counter-attack : Contre-attaque
- an attack made against the right-of-way, or in
the opponent's attack.
- Counter-disengage : Contre-dégagement
- a disengage in the opposite direction, to
- Counter-parry : Contre-parade
- a parry made in the opposite line to the attack; ie.
defender first comes around to the opposite side of the opponent's blade.
- Counter-riposte : Contre-riposte
- an attack that follows a parry of the opponent's
- Counter-time : Contre-temps
- an attack that responds to the opponent's counter-
typically a riposte following the parry of the counter-attack.
- Coulé : Coulé
- also graze, glise', or glissade; an attack or feint that slides
- Coup lancé : See flick ;
"Coup déjà lancé" (Art. 32.2; 46; 47) :
- a launched hit; an attack that starts before a stop in
lands after. Valid for normal halts, but not valid at end of time.
- Coupé : Coupé
- also cut-over; an attack or deception that passes around
- Croisé : Croisé
- also semi-bind; an action in which the opponent's blade is
into the high or low line on the same side.
- Cross : Passe avant, passe arrière
- an advance or retreat by crossing one leg over the other;
avant (forward cross), passe' arriere (backwards cross).
- Cut : Coup de taille
- an attack made with a chopping motion of the blade, landing
edge or point.
- Deception : Dérobement
- avoidance of an attempt to engage the blades; see
- Derobement : Dérobement
- deception of the attack au fer or prise de fer.
- Direct : Coup droit
- an attack or riposte that finishes in the same line in which it
formed, with no feints out of that line.
- Disengage : Dégagement
- a circular movement of the blade that deceives the
parry, removes the blades from engagement, or changes the line of engagement.
- Displacement : Esquive
- moving the target to avoid an attack; dodging.
- Double : Coup double
- in epee, two attacks that arrive within 40-50 ms of each
- Doublé : Doublé
- an attack or riposte that describes a complete circle
opponent's blade, and finishes in the opposite line.
- Dry : Fleuret (épée, sabre) mécanique
- also steam; fencing without electric scoring aids.
- Engagement : Engagement
- when the blades are in contact with each other, eg.
parry, attack au fer, prise de fer, or coule'.
- En Garde : En garde
- also On Guard; the fencing position; the stance that
assume when preparing to fence.
- Envelopment : Enveloppement
- an engagement that sweeps the opponent's blade
- Epee : Épée
- a fencing weapon with triangular cross-section blade and a
guard; also a light duelling sword of similar design, popular in the mid-19th
- False : Fausse attaque
- an action that is intended to fail, but draw a predicted
the opponent; also, the back edge of a sabre blade.
- Feint : Feinte
- attacking into one line with the intention of switching to
before the attack is completed.
- Fencing Time : Temps d'escrime
- also temps d'escrime; the time required to complete
simple fencing action.
- FIE : FIE (Fédération Internationale d'Escrime)
- Federation Internationale d'Escrime, the world governing
- Finta in tempo : Finta in tempo
- lit. "feint in time"; a feint of counter-attack that
counter-time parry, which is decieved.
- Fleche : Flèche
- lit. "arrow"; an attack in which the aggressor leaps off his
foot, attempts to make the hit, and then passes the opponent at a run.
- Flick : Coup lancé, "Bingo"
- a cut-like action that lands with the point, often involving
of the foible of the blade to "throw" the point around a block or other
- Florentine : Combat à la florentine
- a fencing style where a secondary weapon or other
used in the off hand.
- Flying Parry or Riposte :
- a parry with a backwards glide and riposte
- Foible : Le faible de la lame
- the upper, weak part of the blade.
- Foil : Fleuret
- a fencing weapon with rectangular cross-section blade and a
guard; any sword that has been buttoned to render it less dangerous for
- Forte : Le fort de la lame
- the lower, strong part of the blade.
- French Grip : Poignée droite
- a traditional hilt with a slightly curved grip and a large
- Froissement : Froissement
- an attack that displaces the opponent's blade by a
- Glide : Coulé
- see coule'.
- Guard : Coquille
- the metal cup or bow that protects the hand from being hit.
the defensive position assumed when not attacking.
- Hilt : Garde
- the handle of a sword, consisting of guard, grip, and
- Homologated : Homologué
- certified for use in FIE competitions, eg. 800N
- In Quartata : In quartata
- an attack made with a quarter turn to the inside,
the front but exposing the back.
- In Time : Coup de temps
- when a stop-hit arrives at least one fencing time before the
- Indirect : Attaque indirecte
- an attack or riposte that finishes in the opposite line to
was formed, by means of a disengage or coupe'.
- Insistence : Coup droit d'autorité
- forcing an attack through the parry.
- Interception :
- a counter-attack that intercepts and checks an indirect
or other disengagement.
- Invitation : Invite
- a line that is intentionally left open to encourage the
- Italian Grip : Poignée italienne
- a traditional hilt with finger rings and crossbar.
- Jury : Jury
- the 4 officials who watch for hits in a dry fencing bout.
- Lamé : Plastron électrique
- a metallic vest/jacket used to detect valid touches in foil and
- Line : Ligne
- the main direction of an attack (eg., high/low, inside/outside),
equated to the parry that must be made to deflect the attack; also point in line.
- Lunge : Fente
- an attack made by extending the rear leg and landing on the
- Mal-parry : Parade insuffisante
- also mal-paré; a parry that fails to prevent the attack
- Manipulators : Manipulateurs
- the thumb and index finger of the sword hand.
- Maraging : Maraging
- a special steel used for making blades; said to be
break more cleanly than conventional steels.
- Marker Points :
- an old method of detecting hits using inked
- Martingale : Martingale
- a strap that binds the grip to the wrist/forearm.
- Match : Match
- the aggregate of bouts between two fencing teams.
- Measure : Mesure
- the distance between the fencers.
- Middle : Milieu de la lame
- the middle third of the blade, between foible and forte.
- Neuvieme : "Septime haute"
- an unconventional parry (#9) sometimes described as
behind the back, pointing down (a variant of octave), other times similar to elevated
- Octave : Octave
- parry #8; blade down and to the outside, wrist
- Opposition : Opposition
- holding the opponent's blade in a non-threatening line;
hit; any attack or counter-attack with opposition.
- Parry : Parade
- a block of the attack, made with the forte of one's own
- Pass : Dépassement
- an attack made with a cross; eg. fleche, "Russian lunge".
Also, the act
of moving past the opponent.
- Passata-sotto : Passata Sotto
- a lunge made by dropping one hand to the floor.
- Passé : Coup passé
- an attack that passes the target without hitting; also a cross-
- Phrase : Phrases d'armes
- a set of related actions and reactions in a fencing
- Piste : Piste
- the linear strip on which a fencing bout is fought; approx. 2m
and 14m long.
- Pistol Grip : Crosse; poignée orthopédique
- a modern, orthopaedic grip, shaped vaguely like a
varieties are known by names such as Belgian, German, Russian, and Visconti.
- Plaqué : Coup plaqué
- a point attack that lands flat.
- Plastron : Plastron
- a partial jacket worn for extra protection; typically a half-
worn under the main jacket on the weapon-arm side of the body.
- Point : Touche
- a valid touch; the tip of the sword; an attack made with the
- Point in Line : Menace
- also line; an extended arm and blade that threatens
- Pommel : Pommeau
- a fastener that attaches the grip to the blade.
- Preparation : Préparation
- the initial phase of an attack, before right-of-way is
- Presentation :
- offering one's blade for engagement by the
- Press : Presser v. pression
- an attempt to push the opponent's blade aside or out of line;
depending on the opponent's response, the press is followed by a direct or indirect
- Prime : Prime
- parry #1; blade down and to the inside, wrist pronated.
- Principle of Defence : Principe de défense
- the use of forte against foible when
- Priority : Priorité
- in sabre, the now-superceded rules that decide which
be awarded the touch in the event that they both attack simultaneously; also used
synonymously with right-of-way.
- Prise de Fer : Prise de fer
- also taking the blade; an engagement of the blades
the opponent's weapon into a new line. See : bind, croise, envelopment,
- Quarte : Quarte
- parry #4; blade up and to the inside, wrist supinated.
- Quinte : Quinte
- parry #5; blade up and to the inside, wrist pronated. In
blade is held above the head to protect from head cuts.
- Rapier : Rapière
- a long, double-edged thrusting sword popular in the 16th-
- Red Card : Carton rouge
- used to indicate repeated minor rule infractions or a
infraction by one of the fencers; results in a point being given to the other
- Redoublement : Redoublement
- a new action that follows an attack that missed or
parried; see also Reprise.
- Referee : Arbitre, Président
- also director, president; the mediator of the fencing
- Remise : Remise
- immediate replacement of an attack that missed or was
without withdrawing the arm.
- Reprise : Reprise
- renewal of an attack that missed or was parried, after a
en-garde; see also Redoublement.
- Retreat : Retraite
- step back; opposite of advance.
- Right-of-way : Raison, Priorité
- rules for awarding the point in the event of a double
foil or sabre.
- Riposte : Riposte
- an attack made immediately after a parry of the opponent's
- Sabre : Sabre
- a fencing weapon with a flat blade and knuckle guard, used
cutting or thrusting actions; a military sword popular in the 18th to 20th centuries;
any cutting sword used by cavalry.
- Salle : Salle d'armes
- a fencing hall or club.
- Salute : Salut
- with the weapon, a customary acknowledgement of one's
and referee at the start and end of the bout.
- Second Intention : Seconde intention
- a false action used to draw a response from the
opponent, which will open the opportunity for the intended action that follows,
typically a counter-riposte.
- Seconde : Seconde
- parry #2; blade down and to the outside, wrist
- Septime : Septime
- parry #7; blade down and to the inside, wrist
- Simple : Attaque simple
- an attack (or riposte) that involves no feints.
- Simultaneous : Attaques simultanées
- in foil and sabre, two attacks for which the right-of-
too close to determine.
- Single Stick : Canne
- a form of fencing with basket-hilted wooden
- Sixte : Sixte
- parry #6; blade up and to the outside, wrist supinated.
- Small Sword : Dague
- a light duelling sword popular in the 18th century,
to the foil.
- Stop Hit : Coup d'arrêt
- a counter-attack that hits; also a counter-attack whose
valid by virtue of it's timing.
- Stop Cut : Coup d'arrêt
- a stop-hit with the edge in sabre, typically to the
- Three Prong : "Fil de corps épée"
- a type of epee body wire/connector; also an old-
that would snag clothing, to make it easier to detect hits in the pre-electric era.
- Thrown Point : Coup lancé, "bingo"
- a "flick".
- Thrust : Coup de pointe, coup d'estoc
- an attack made by moving the sword parallel to its length
landing with the point.
- Tierce : Tierce
- parry #3; blade up and to the outside, wrist pronated.
- Time Hit : Coup de temps
- also time-thrust; old name for stop hit with
- Trompement : Trompement
- deception of the parry.
- Two Prong : "Fil de corps fleuret / sabre"
- a type of body-wire/connector, used in foil and
- Whip-over : Coup fouetté
- in sabre, a touch that results from the foible of the
whipping over the opponent's guard or blade when parried.
- Whites : "Tenue"
- fencing clothing.
- Yellow Card : Carton jaune
- also advertissement, warning; used to indicate a
infraction by one of the fencers.
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